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The Victoria Feeds - Horse & Hound offer the agriculture community one of the largest product lines of pet food/supplies, milled feeds, livestock feeds-both bulk and bag, minerals and supplements, fencing and other agriculture supplies and now a large selection of quality English and Western tack and clothing.

Located at one convenient location at 84 Adelaide St.S in Lindsay, delivery to the agriculture community is just one of the many improved services they offer the consumer.

The 8000 sq.ft facility offers shopping and warehouse space plus four loading docks for customer pick-up and delivery with lots of free parking.

The Victoria Feeds - Horse & Hound is your Agribrands Purina dealer and can provide you with feeds that fit the way you operate.

Totally commited to growing along with his customers, owner/operator Steve Goldie invites you to their new location the next time you are shopping for quality products and service.

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Biosecurity measures in Farm Business

Biosecurity is the set of management practices designed to prevent the entry and transmission of pathogens that may affect animal farms’ health. Biosecurity with Extranet is a fundamental part of any poultry business as it provides an increase in animal productivity and an increase in economic yields. In general terms, we must consider the location of the farm, construction characteristics of the ship, control of foreign animals to the farm, cleaning and disinfection of the ship, control visits, avoid animal stress, avoid contamination of feed , Control of vaccinations and medications and control of dejections, corpses and contumaces.

The greatest risk that poultry production can have is not to have a biosecurity plan, hence biosecurity is a fundamental part of any poultry business to reduce the occurrence of diseases in poultry.

The concept of biosecurity in a livestock farm refers to the maintenance of the environment free of microorganisms or at least with a minimum load that does not interfere with animal production. We can define the concept of biosecurity as the set of management practices that are aimed at reducing the entry and transmission of pathogens and their vectors in animal farms. Biosecurity measures are designed to prevent and prevent the entry of pathogens that may affect the health, welfare and technical performance of poultry. Biosecurity, in our opinion, is the cheapest and safest management practice for disease control. No disease prevention program can circumvent a biosecurity plan.

Now we understand that the concept of biosecurity is a much broader concept since it also refers to the physical location of the farm (physical biosecurity) and the design of the farm (structural biosecurity).

Every biosecurity plan should be flexible in nature, easy and practical to apply and versatile, so that it can be adapted to the advances in animal production.

Broadly speaking, any biosecurity program must include the following aspects:

  1. Correct location of the farm.
  2. Constructive characteristics of the ship.
  3. Control of animals from the wild (wild animals, insects, rats, mice, etc.).
  4. Cleaning and disinfection of the ship and livestock equipment.
  5. Use of lots of the same age.
  6. Control of visits and personnel outside the farm.
  7. Avoid animal stress.
  8. Avoid contamination of feed.
  9. Control vaccination and medication programs of animals.
  10. Control of dejections, corpses and contumaces.

1. Location of the farm

It is one of the first aspects to consider when setting a biosafety program and, perhaps, one of the most important factors. Sometimes the success or failure of the biosafety plan will depend on the location of the farm and its isolation.

Regardless of the correct orientation of the ship according to the altitude and latitude of the area, every ship should be kept as far away as possible from other poultry vessels (minimum distance 200 m) or of different species (minimum distance 3 Km). Also, the farm should be kept away and isolated from any urban center, slaughterhouse, garbage dump, etc. In optimal climatic conditions the birds can be infected by microorganisms transported in dust particles by the wind. Among the pathogens most at risk are mycoplasmas, as well as various bacteria and viruses.

The more isolated the farm is, the less likely we are that it can be transited and visited by outside personnel. Ideally, the road or access road to the farm should be used exclusively for the farm personnel, in this way we will reduce the traffic of trucks and people outside the minimum possible.

On the other hand, it is recommended that the access roads be asphalted as the dirt roads generate enough dust as trucks pass, converting dust particles into vehicles that transmit microorganisms.

2. Constructive characteristics of the ship

It is essential to have a good insulation of both ceilings and walls, not only to favor the maintenance of environmental conditions of optimal temperature and humidity, but also to be able to carry out a biosafety plan.

Controlled environment ships will not avoid this risk unless they have filters for bacteria and viruses at the entrance of the air intake.

The ship must be isolated from the outside as much as possible, in such a way as to prevent the access of wild animals, insects, mice or rats.

The farm must be fenced (at least 2 m high) around its perimeter with only two entrances, one for foot staff and one for vehicles, both doors being closed all the time. Keeping about 5 meters outside the fence free of vegetation.

3. Control of strange animals to the ship

Special care must be taken with insects (mainly flies and mosquitoes) as they are the main vehicles transmitting diseases. That is why we carry out an exhaustive control of them throughout the production cycle, as well as the corresponding prevention treatments taking advantage of the days of sanitary vacuum.

Regarding rats and mice, we can remember that these can travel up to 2 km. The risk is due to the arrival of rodents from other farms and the diffusion through feed contaminated by feces of rodents.

On the other hand, birds also represent a potential risk as vectors of pathogens, mainly salmonella.

Finally, we must avoid the presence inside the ship of domestic animals (dogs and cats).

4. Cleaning and disinfection of the ship and the tooling

Without a good cleaning and disinfection of the ship we can not pursue the ultimate goal of any biosecurity plan that is maintenance of the ship free of microorganisms.

Apart from the daily cleaning tasks, which are based on the livestock species and the operating system used; Taking advantage of the sanitary voids of the ship between lot and lot of animals (all system inside all outside), we will carry out a complete cleaning and disinfection of the ship. To do this, we will dismantle and remove all material and livestock equipment that can be dismantled. The ship will be swept, washed and thoroughly cleaned.

Avoid exposing new birds, including day-old chicks, to contact with feces, feathers, dust and organic waste from the previous batch, as some pathogens die quickly, others survive for a long time if conditions are ( See Table 1 ).

At the time of the reception of a new batch of birds, it is advisable to check the heating system, ventilation, automatic feed distribution, drinking troughs, etc., on the previous day to check that everything works Correctly before the arrival of new birds.

So that you do not forget any aspect of the cleaning it would be advisable that we make a list with the main tasks to develop.

During the period of sanitary evacuation we must carry out the following tasks:

  1. Dismantle the material and livestock equipment (feeders, drinking troughs, cages, fans, wheelbarrows, etc.) and remove it to the outside, for later washing and disinfecting it. Outside the ship we have a very effective natural disinfectant such as ultraviolet rays of sunlight, which are tremendously potent in the elimination of microorganisms, an action that is enhanced by drying outdoors. Also, in this phase the use of the torch can be used for the removal of organic remains as feathers.
  2. When it exists, it will be necessary to remove the old litter and store it in a place as far as possible from the ship, until its later destruction or sale as manure.
  3. Thorough sweeping of the exploitation and scraping of the remains of organic matter and droppings that can not be removed by simple sweeping. Also, a dry cleaning of lights, ceilings, fixed parts of different appliances, fans, blinds, etc will be carried out to avoid the accumulation of dust in these parts. Remove the cobwebs. Good cleaning and sweeping are essential, as organic matter debris interferes with the action of the disinfectants either because they form a coating barrier or because they react chemically with the disinfectant by neutralizing it.
  4. Later cleaning with water under pressure (50-80 atmospheres). With this we will make the subsequent application of the disinfectant as effective as possible. For cleaning with water we have to follow some basic rules: first water is poured, second is washed and third is rinsed.
    With the wet cleaning we are going to get reduce the dust particles inside.
    If possible it is recommended to use hot water as it has a greater capacity to carry away the remains of dirt and, in addition, most disinfectants act better with hot water. A high-pressure pump for this task would be very useful.
    After washing the ship it is very convenient to remove all traces of detergents since they can neutralize the action of the disinfectants that we use later.
  5. Once the ship is clean and dry we will carry out the disinfection task. The application of disinfectants can be sprayed or fumigated. Most disinfectants act at an ambient temperature of 20-22 ° C.
    It is imperative to follow the safety regulations of the disinfectant manufacturer at the time of application in terms of the dose, dilutions, waiting times, protection for the personnel in charge Of their application (gloves, masks, boots, etc).
    The best disinfectant is formaldehyde. Generally it is used by fumigation, for which all windows and doors must be closed well for the gases to act. The method of fumigation is preferred to that of the spray as the gases are able to reach all the corners and grooves of the ship.

Other disinfectants used are:

  • Phenols: phenols are carbon – pitch derivatives. They have a characteristic smell and become milky in the water. Phenols are very effective against bacterial agents and are also effective against fungi and many viruses. Its most common uses in commercial livestock units include: incubation halls, sanitation equipment and foot mats.
  • Quaternary Ammonium: Quaternary ammonium compounds are generally odorless, colorless, non-irritating, and deodorant. They also have some detergent action, and are good disinfectants. However, some quaternary ammonium compounds are inactive in the presence of soap or soap residues. Its antibacterial activity is reduced with the presence of organic material. Quaternary ammonium compounds are effective against bacteria and somewhat effective against fungi and viruses. These compounds are widely used in commercial hatcheries.
  • Iodophors: iodine compounds are a combination of elemental iodine and a substance that makes iodine soluble in water. They are good disinfectants, but they do not work well in the presence of organic material. They are effective against bacteria, fungi, and many viruses. Iodine is the least toxic of disinfectants. Many iodine products can stain clothes and porous surfaces.
  • Hypochlorites: Chlorine compounds are good disinfectants on clean surfaces, but are rapidly inactivated by dirt. Chlorine is effective against bacteria and many viruses. These compounds are also much more active in hot water than in cold water. Chlorine solutions can irritate the skin and are corrosive to the metal. They are relatively inexpensive.
  • Peroxides: Hydrogen peroxide is used in poultry operations. They are active against bacteria, bacterial spores, viruses, and fungi at very low concentrations. The common hydrogen peroxide can be used by mixing 30 cc in 100 liters of drinking water to disinfect the drinking troughs.

When choosing a disinfectant or another we have to take into account a number of aspects:

    • Its economic cost.
    • Its effectiveness. It must be effective against an extended range of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, etc.).
    • We must take into account the species of livestock in question.
    • Do not be toxic to animals and safe for operators.
    • Its residual activity. You should not leave residues in the meat.
    • Its activity with organic matter and soap. Must be able to penetrate organic matter.
    • Its effectiveness on fabrics and metals.
    • Its solubility.
    • Time of contact. All disinfectants require a minimum contact time to show their effectiveness. No one acts immediately.
    • Ambient temperature in which they show more efficiency.

Mode of application of disinfectants:

    • Use the concentration recommended by the manufacturer and proven effective against pathogens.
    • Use a suitable volume in such a way that both walls and floors are well impregnated. A recommended application volume could be 300 ml / m 2 of surface to be treated. On porous surfaces the volume can be expanded.
    • Leave the disinfectant to work during the minimum contact time, which is usually at least 30 minutes.

When using disinfection equipment that has been previously used in other ships we have to make sure that they are clean, as sometimes these equipment can act as transmission vehicles of microorganisms between farm and farm.

F. Disinfestation, as well as de-rooting and de-ratting can be carried out to help control insects, mice and rats.

G. Taking advantage of the sanitary void can also be carried out a control of water quality through physical-chemical and microbiological analysis. We can also carry out chlorination treatments of drinking water at a rate of 3 ppm. For this we use the familiar bleach, diluted sodium hypochlorite.

Once the ship is cleaned, disinfected and disinfected, we will be able to put all the material that we have previously removed and cleaned, as well as to replace clean bedding if the livestock species requires it.

5. Uniformity of batches

Use of lots of the same age, as this will reduce the contamination of adult animals to the younger. If you have to accommodate lots of different ages, the ships of the same lot must be separated.

When a new animal is introduced to the farm it must go through a quarantine period (at least 4 weeks), where it will be observed to detect any signs of disease. During this period we can use to perform blood tests for the diagnosis of infectious and parasitic diseases.

6. Control of visits and farm staff

As far as possible we should minimize the visits of foreign personnel to the ship, although we are aware that this is very difficult to obtain, so it is necessary to have a biosafety program in relation to the visits. Remember that infectious diseases can spread from one farm to another through the clothing and footwear of visitors or staff moving from ship to ship of different batches of birds.

Prior to the entry of the vehicles, they will be washed, for which they will have the corresponding washing equipment or a wheel with the relevant disinfectant solution. The wheel will need to cover the wheels of the vehicle. The most dangerous areas of the trucks are usually the cargo lifts, the cabin and the low ones; Along with the footwear and clothes of the truckers.

In the same way the entrance of all the personnel to the exploitation will be made previous shower, putting a special emphasis in the washing of hair and nails. The interior of the ship will be accessed with clothing and footwear for this purpose, in the best hygienic conditions possible and that should only be used for that farm. In the shower room there should be two areas, clean area and dirty area, and the movement should be in one direction only.

It is advisable to have a visitor log book that specifies: name of visitor, company, reason for the visit, date and last place where contact with animals took place.

At the entrance of the ship a pediluvium will be placed for the disinfection of the footwear. The pediluvium will be filled with a disinfectant solution that is not affected by the temperature and by the sun’s rays. This solution must be renewed at least once a week, being very important the cleaning of the boots before submerging them in the pediluvium. This is one of the most delicate points and one that should be given more attention, since in 90% of microbial contaminations man acts as a transmitter.

The transit of the personnel must always be from the youngest to the oldest. It is convenient to wash our hands when handling birds of different batches or ages.

Finally, we strongly recommend that staff working on the farm do not have birds in their house.

7. Avoid stress of animals

We must avoid stressful situations throughout the productive cycle, since this can deplete the immune system of birds and be an ideal opportunity for certain microorganisms that until that date had been maintained in a latent way.

In this sense, we will monitor the presence of any stressors (noise, excess light, strange odors, presence of personnel outside the farm, presence of other animals, maladaptation to accommodation systems, etc.)

A special mention requires acoustic contamination of animals. As far as possible, the exploitation should be as far away as possible from the main means of communication. Monitor the maintenance of ventilation equipment and automatic feed distribution so that they do not exceed certain decibels.

8. Avoid contamination of feed

Sometimes it is the own feed the transmitting vehicle of microorganisms, especially for certain fungi like Aspergillus flavus . We must avoid the humidity in the places of storage of the feed and in the silos, since the excess of humidity favors the growth and multiplication of the fungi. Periodically clean and disinfect food silos. Always have two silos and disinfect while making alternate use of them.

To reduce risks, it is recommended to use feeds that have undergone heat treatments.

9. Control vaccination programs and medication of animals

We must strictly follow the schedule of vaccinations established for this purpose by the veterinarian, which will include those diseases of compulsory vaccination and optional vaccines depending on the area in question.

The person in charge of the vaccination must have a perfect knowledge of the vaccine in question (dose, form of application, intervals of revaccination, etc.). Always use the previously disinfected material.

It is advisable to keep a record of the day of vaccination, the lot of vaccine used, type of vaccine, date of expiration, etc.

Finally, to say that the birds will not be vaccinated in situation of stress, since they can have problems when being diminished the immune system.

10. Control of dejections, corpses and contumaces

The farm must have a waste management system that complies with current regulations including the discharge record in wastewater.

Likewise, we must have a pit for corpses or an incinerator. In the latter case, it must be in good condition and comply with all legal requirements.

All debris such as dead birds, broken eggs or other biological remains must be deposited in septic tanks designed for this purpose with hermetic cap.


The establishment of a biosecurity program in a poultry farm will provide an increase in animal productivity and an increase in economic returns. Also, the use of certain antimicrobials will be reduced, which will reduce antibiotic residues in the eggs and in the channels of the chickens.

It is necessary to design a biosafety plan that contemplates each one of the points discussed above in a routine way that allows us to control and follow up on a controlled form of all the measures of biosecurity that we have contemplated.

Finally, to say that biosafety programs should never be seen as an unnecessary cost imposed by technicians but as an investment with a profitability in the short and medium term.

Why did you choose to give birth at home farm?

Personally, this decision seemed to us the most adapted to what we expected from a birth , that is to say (and as far as possible concerning my health and that of the baby), the arrival of the baby in peace , With as few people as possible, in a familiar environment and without being pressed or given me medicine.

During my pregnancy, I also wanted to be followed by the same person , to establish a climate of confidence, that she knows us well, supports us, listens to our doubts if need be. I wanted to avoid any stress and make it really simple.

We were not against medical follow-up and we did all ultrasounds, blood tests, monitoring and other preparations at birth, like all women who wait for a child. The only difference is that I stayed with my midwife for me all alone on the day of childbirth! My daughter was born on my bed, from her dad’s hands and four hours after birth, we were all 3 in our house, serenely.

Generally, women who opt for childbirth at home do so because they do not want to go to the hospital and prefer to opt for the comfort of a habitat they like.

How many home births take place each year in France? And abroad ?

There are quite few of them and the real numbers are even lower than the reality , since the statistics also count the mothers who give birth unexpectedly at home, in their car, at work and so on.

In the  Netherlands , the system is very advanced with a rate of 30% of births at home: the public finances understood that it was cheaper for them, and antennas are established all over the country. In the United Kingdom, about 15% of births occur in parents’ homes.

In France in 2008, there were approximately 8,000 selected home births, followed by a liberal midwife and properly prepared (according to the  National Council of the Midwifery , there would be fewer 3000 each year out of a total of 800 000 births, NDRL). There are more and more couples interested in this option, but few of them have the opportunity because there are only about sixty liberal midwives who deliver home deliveries in France (72 Midwives in 2011, NDRL), they are poorly distributed geographically. Some highly motivated couples still travel hundreds of kilometers to find their midwife.

How well prepare? Who to trust?

Photo: Raphael Goetter on Flickr

To prepare well, it is enough to follow with assiduity the appointments with his midwife .You have to trust yourself, the dad, the midwife and especially the baby. It has been tens of thousands of years since the human species and all mammals reproduce in this way. Let us trust our bodies. Medicine is formidable in case of danger and to facilitate the life of patients who suffer from diseases. Being pregnant and giving birth is not being sick!

And after childbirth?

The midwife leaves after the first observation tests with the baby and after making sure that the mother is well. She gives advice for feeding on the first day. She returns the following days, a few hours depending on her availability and the needs of the parents. She can be contacted by phone if necessary,You may visit our website here.

Healthy Skin – Of Interest – Skin Care After Summer for Farmers and Outdoor Workers

The recovery of the skin after the summer is based on a good exfoliation and the subsequent rehydration. The sun and the outdoors are aggressive agents for the skin and this needs immediate repair after the summer.
The main damage to the skin during the summer is dehydration . Thus, when the humidity goes from 90% to 60%, the skin undergoes a dehydration of 30%. This loss of water causes a less lustrous, dry and rough skin. Air conditioning is also a factor to take into account, since the sudden thermal change and the dryness of these cooling systems encourage further dehydration, if at all. In addition to dehydration, the skin suffers from the appearance of photoaging or aging-induced lesions caused by solar action, resulting in a greater degree of deterioration and the appearance of enlarged spots and capillaries.

Exposure to the sun’s rays, even with cloudy skies, should involve in all cases, constantly and more in children, the continued use of sunscreens suited to the activity, latitude, subject’s age and color of the skin. Solar irradiation on the skin is related to skin cancer and malignant melanoma . In addition, the skin “remembers” the small injuries received in childhood after their repeated encounters with the sun, which must not be forgotten that it is one of the most powerful sources of energy in nature.

After summer, the skin may have suffered varying degrees of damage from the sun and outdoors. This is a good time to repair these aggressions and restore the skin to its freshness. Meals should be rich in beta-carotenes, which are substances that give color to vegetables and are precursors of vitamin A, such as pumpkin, carrot, tomato, spinach, loquat, broccoli, etc. Antioxidants in foods, such as vitamin C and E, are critical to skin recovery. These vitamins are present in vegetable oils, meats, fish, vegetables and fruits. Poe it is important to take care of the food for a good recovery of the skin, you can you to skin care clinic near me to check the condition of your skin.

This strategy should be reinforced with exfoliation of the skin to remove dead cells and give way to a renewed skin. Then, it is essential to proceed with a reinforced hydration to recover the skin from the damages caused by the summer. Drinking at least one liter and a half of water a day and better two liters is the principle of a good hydration and the indispensable complement of The cosmetics. It is essential to preserve the barrier paper of the horny layer by applying moisturizing substances in the form of creams with lipids that prevent the evaporation of water from the skin.

The rays of the sun cause the formation of free radicals in the cells of the skin with great oxidizing capacity, producing a damage in its interior that conditions the aging of the skin. The appearance of the skin changes and becomes rough, wrinkled, little elastic and with a yellow color. There are also dark and discolored spots and small veins. It is the typical skin of farmers or other outdoor workers. Many years of sunbathing without protection and indiscriminately can cause this skin alteration to appear at maturity without the possibility of recovery.

The prevention of photo-aging is based on the use of suitable sunscreens and the application of moisturizing cosmetics, which are necessary to replenish the water lost by the effect of solar radiation. Taking the sun in a rational way is, in short, the most effective measure to prevent it.

Lesions suffered by solar radiation in childhood are stored in the memory of the skin and pass bill in adult life. Children are more vulnerable to sun damage as their defense mechanisms are immature. Never expose babies to the sun as they have a very sensitive skin and have not yet fully developed their ability to form melanin, the pigment that produces the tan. In addition, the burns would be more serious and the dehydration under the sun is frequent. Protective creams should not be used before the age of six months as some babies may suffer from irritations and allergic reactions to creams.

Between six and twelve months you can start using protective creams that should always be adapted to children (pediatric creams) and with a high protection factor. They are most likely to remain in the shade and wear them in cotton t-shirts and wide-brimmed hats as clothing can block up to 97% of the UVB rays that hit the child.

Solar creams should be applied whether the child stays in the sun or in the shade or under the water. The rays that are reflected in the sand or in the water are equally damaging. A cloudy day should never be an excuse not to apply the protective cream as the clouds do not offer sufficient protection against the action of the sun. Near the water the sun’s rays are even more harmful by being reflected in it. Therefore, children should not be allowed to play on the shore or stay in the water for a long time.

The use of sunglasses approved and adapted to the child’s face is required, and that they fit to the head with elastic straps. Children lack the sun’s defenses against adults. The mounts must of course be unbreakable and be made of non-toxic materials and antiallergics. They must be purchased in optics to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

In children it is necessary to use a sun cream with a high protection factor and should never be exposed directly to the sun, wearing caps and T-shirts, and remain in the shade.

Sunspots on the skin

Currently, a large number of people complain about the appearance of males on their skin. These spots are usually the result of exposure to sunlight. Even simple exposure during transit through the streets of cities is enough to make these unsightly spots appear.

Your treatment falls within the specialty of Dermatology and you should go to the doctor before applying alternative treatments. As for prevention, people with a tendency to suffer these spots should not sunbathe and are forced to use a sunscreen with total screen to go outside. The application of the protector should be renewed every two hours during exposure to sunlight.

The simple exposure during the transit through the streets of the cities is enough to appear these unsightly sunspots.

Tips for Radiant Skin

The daily cleaning of the skin is essential and should use mild hygiene products and warm water not to alter the acidic mantle of the skin and not to dry its surface. It is advisable to avoid perfumes that can react with the sun and produce stains. Thorough drying without rubbing is essential not to irritate and to avoid fungal infections, more frequent in summer. It is more hygienic not to share the towels. Moisturizers and bath oils are good weapons to keep the skin hydrated while improving its appearance. It is necessary to wear cool and loose clothing and avoid wearing clothes or shoes made of artificial materials to facilitate the perspiration of the skin and avoid injuries due to excessive sweating .

Restful sleep in a well-ventilated room is also critical to maintaining beautiful, healthy skin.

Hair loss after laser hair removal

After a laser hair removal session the hair behaves differently than it does in other alternative methods, be it wax, razor, razor or electric hair removal.

It causes surprise in the user to discover that, a few days after the laser session, part of the hair can leave again. Some come to think that the session has had no effect, which has been poorly done, so that hair continues to grow normally. These ideas can be reinforced when an indeterminate percentage of them do not fall definitively until fifteen or twenty days later.

It is not really the consequence of a bad application, but it is a perfectly natural effect in this procedure of hair removal. Warned or not by the user, this behavior is because the root is the part of the hair that absorbs most of the energy transmitted in each shot;Consequently, it is the zone that reaches the highest temperature during the treatment. In this way the root is weakened, damaged, so the stem will be released days later leaving in the skin a small stretch that the body will expel as it would any other foreign element.

Throughout this process, which can last for a couple of weeks, the stem begins to stick out of the epidermis. If at that moment we would pull it out with a pair of tweezers, even with our fingers, we would extract it completely without the least resistance. And, in fact, the root of that hair no longer has any link with the hair follicle that generated it.

Consequently, when the stem has emerged and the hairs are in this state, they will be detached in the shower, by the rubbing of the clothes, by the movements that we do in sleep and, of course, if we use exfoliating soaps and sponges for the Release the skin from dead cells.

This circumstance, absolutely logical in laser hair removal, does not happen in all sessions nor in 100% of hair treated.

You want to know more?

This spontaneous drop of hairs treated in the session occurs only in an undetermined percentage of them, not at all. The cause is the cyclic growth of hair. In the next session the effect will occur in another indeterminate percentage, reason why it is necessary to realize successive sessions.

Here are some additional information to complete your knowledge on the subject:

  • The anagen phase of the hair is ideal to receive a session of laser hair removal scottsdale. The percentage of the same in this phase varies from some zones and circumstances to others. Thus, in the armpits may not exceed 30%. Most hairs – the remaining 70% – are in the catagen or telogen phase, so they do not meet the appropriate conditions for treatment.
  •  It is the 30% of hairs in the anagen phase that can fall spontaneously in those two or three weeks from the application of the treatment. In the next session the process will be repeated, this time with another 30% different (approximately) hairs.
  • In the facial area of the upper lip there are higher percentages of hair in the anagen phase.
  • As a colophon, it should be remembered that the ability to warm properly is low when the hair is in the catagen or telogen phase, so the effectiveness of the session decreases greatly in them.

10 Amazing Benefits of Horsetail for Skin, Hair and Health

Equistem, commonly known as horsetail, is a plant family of vascular plants and is considered as a living fossil. Remember alfalfa in appearance. The plant reproduces by spores instead of seeds like the usual plants. Absorption of silica is very rare among plants growing on Earth, but horsetail is an exception. It is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, healing, antiseptic and antimicrobial properties, making it a very useful plant. This plant is very beneficial for us, as it has several medicinal properties.

Here are some of the common benefits of horsetail grass for which it has been widely used for some time.

Advantages of Horsetail Grass Skin :

Antiseptic Properties:


The ponytail can be applied directly to the skin to heal wounds and cuts. It has antiseptic properties that prevent dirt from infecting the body.

Anti-inflammatory Properties:

The anti-inflammatory properties of the ponytail are an excellent remedy for rashes caused by clothing and other allergies. The diluted cold tea pony tail purifies the skin and is an effective remedy for pimple and acne prone skin. E ‘is used by rubbing ponytail tea on the face after thorough cleaning.

Anti-Aging Properties:

Products intended to provide anti-aging and anti-wrinkle benefits often contain horsetail as an important ingredient because of its ability to develop and maintain healthy connective tissues of the body.

Benefits of Hair Grass Horsetail :

For the growth of healthy hair:

Horsetail is known to cure baldness in many forms. It is taken as a supplement and is applied in different forms, for healthy growth and natural hair. Horsetail extracts can be mixed with extra virgin olive oil or coconut oil and massaged regularly into the hair during healthy and dense hair growth.

Curing Hair Problems:

The presence of silica in the ponytail, is an effective cure for the treatment of hair problems as ends of dandruff and division. This natural hair care product can make your hair look healthy and beautiful without side effects.

Natural Conditioner:

Horsetail tea is a natural conditioner and can be used regularly as rinse after shampoo for smooth and shiny hair. So say goodbye to dry and very curly hair, and enjoy long delicious hair!

The Health Benefits of Horsetail Grass:

Beautiful skin and hair will remain a dream if the rest of your body stays healthy. But the ponytail offers all the good and helps the body, inside and out!

For healthy kidney and liver:

Horsetail helps treat kidney disorders and fluid retention problems in the body. It helps in removing kidney stones naturally. Infections of the bladder and stones, incontinence and generic problems of happier can also be treated with a ponytail.

Helps regulate menses:

Women who experience irregular cycles or excessive bleeding during menstruation may consume supplements or extracts of horsetail from the ponytail to regularize their periods.

Strengthens bones:

Said fragile and weak bones can be treated with the course of the horse’s tail plant. It is an excellent source of calcium, which makes bones and joints strong.


Tuberculosis, jaundice, hepatitis, freezing, lungs and stomach problems can be treated with natural extracts of the horse’s tail. read more here.

Nutritional value:

  • Diuretic: Horsetail is effective in cleaning the system, causing the need for water in the body and regulating the flow of urine into the body.
  • Silica: high in silica, the herb actually heals boils, acne and other skin problems, including skin marks.
  • Football: The ponytail is effective in strengthening the bones of the body. It is an effective means to treat problems in joints and osteoporosis, of course.

Horsetail is an excellent and effective way to treat most of the health problems we face today, but it is important to use this herb as per the guidance of a nutritionist or a naturopath. This ensures product efficacy and prevent side effects. In addition, it is always safe to start small doses first to make sure it does not cause any allergies in the body.

Consult a doctor if you have any negative side effects of this herb. Do not take any adverse reaction and head to the doctor immediately!

Five cabins near farm for rent

Their cabins, huts, pods or even small yabins (Yurta + cabin), is currently beautiful when it comes to glamping apartments. Th is ready to launch we choose five small joints where you can try sleep reduction

For those of us who dream of cabin life but do not permanently stick to the nearest wood or mountainside, there is a growing number of small homes to rent. Glamping websites are bulging with treehouses, shepherd’s huts, permanent tents, converted horses, pods, gypsy caravans and of course cottages. Next month sees the official launch of Cabinly, a new website dedicated to … you guessed it … and created by Garri Rayner, the man behind Glamping Go, who launched in 2007. At the time Cabinly features 15 places to stay, Mainly in the UK, but there are plans to add more. We have chosen five from all over the UK.

Cottage on the lake, Powys

The cottage on the lake is a simple one bedroom cottage in an idyllic location near Machynlleth in mid-Wales. With a double bed, wood stove, kitchen cutlery and shower you can live out your escapist fantasies in comfort. Swim in the lake, hot in the log cabins with hot tubs. The cottage is on a working farm, which is home to an adult-only campsite with only five well-spaced plots each with its own fire pit. The isolated, virgin setting means wildlife is plentiful, with badgers, wild hares and rabbits, birds of prey, woodpeckers, tiles and all kinds of garden birds.
Three weekend nights in low season £ 360, sleep two, gwaliafarm.co.uk

Brockloch Bothy, Galloway

Bothies are basic huts common in remote areas of Scotland, or at least were. A new generation of architects have taken the concept of bothy and created their own modern-day version; So it is now dotted the smart Scottish landscape, environmentally friendly, design cabins. Brockloch is a place, a micro building out of the grid, timber framing on a 190-hectare estate overlooking the hills of Galloway in south-west Scotland. Guests can visit Threave Castle, Logan Botanic Garden or explore the two-wheeled countryside on one of the 7stanes mountain biking trails. Back in the bothy, sit on the terrace admiring the views of the fields where sheep graze black face.
£ 100 per night, sleep two, brockloch.co.uk

Northern Star Club, Yorkshire Wolds

Created in 2008, Jollydays was a pioneer of posh, offering tasteful, luxurious tents on 15 acres of North Yorkshire woods. Now Christian and Carolyn Van Outersterp, the husband and wife team behind Jollydays, has launched a second project: the Northern Star Club. Inspired by American fields enjoyed by Christian as a child, there are eight “suites” 500 acres of native forest. If your cabin fantasy tends to ascetic, this is not the place for you. The suites have king-size beds and woodburners, as well as massage and spa treatments. All of this comes in the price of a good hotel room but for the city-style escapee who likes the outdoors to see it as a fashion set (Carolyn used to work in fashion and the site is dotted with fur blankets And wood objects of art), is difficult to overcome.
From £ 175 for two nights (January) steep increase in July / August, sleep up to 6, Find Out More.

Gray Willow Yurts, Devon

It is a sign of how quickly the market for glamping is to expand it will invent words to keep up with the different types of housing on offer. Type “yabin” – a cross between a tent and a cabin. These octagonal wood structures are found in Willow Gray Yurts, an ecological site on the Blackdown Hills, near Honiton in South Devon. The yabins were designed and built by owner Peter Selhurst futons and feature a double bed, twin and single beds, wood stove and local fir and ash furniture and a designated fire area.
Sleep four nights from £ 149 off season, up to five, greywillowyurts.co.uk

Elmley National Nature Reserve, Kent

Elmley is a cattle ranch and national nature reserve on the island of Sheppey encompassing a grazing swamp rich in wildlife. Visitors include Wading birds, hares, watervoles, a variety of lizards and even seals, which fish from the formed. Three shepherd huts provide accommodation for photographers attracted by the big skies, or anyone after a nature escape and wildlife watchers (there are four hides in the reservation). The cottages have double beds, bath, woodburners and cook (cook on the stove or in a gas ring on the Kent farm).

Rebelion on the farm

Animal Farm (English title: Animal farm) is a satirical fable written by George Orwell in 1945 on a farm where animals take power and form their own government, which will evolve into a brutal tyranny.
It is considered a veiled criticism of the Russian Revolution and the corruption of Soviet socialism in the times of Stalin .

The main theme of the play is the abuse of power, and how it corrupts those who possess it, leading to greed, discrimination and betrayal. Thus, Rebelion pigs on the farm use their power to manipulate and deceive other animals and secure their hold on them.

Animal Farm also is a strong criticism of the government of the USSR and is generally considered a fable describing the failures of communism .

After the Second World War , respect for Russian communism as a form of government had grown considerably, and George Orwell tried to show through his book that Russia was not a real socialist society, but a ruthless tyranny.

Despite this, given the open and universal character of his message, the fable transcends that framework and is an effective critique of corruption that involves the abuse of power in any society.

Also addresses the criticism against the totalitarianism of any kind (frequent theme in the works of George Orwell) and examines the movement and manipulation of historical truth suffers in times of political transformation.

Another frequent theme in the work of George Orwell and will be present in Animal Farm is the use of force and violence as a means of social control, as seen in Chapter VII of the book, which describes the Persecution and the extermination of internal opposition within the farm.

It is important to know the historical events surrounding the establishment of the USSR to appreciate the satire that makes George Orwell on the degeneration of the Russian Revolution in tyranny and its protagonists.

In 1917 the call is initiated Russian Revolution that led to the fall of the government of Czar Nicholas II , and the establishment of communism in Russia (which was renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , or USSR from 1922). This regime lasted until 1991.

Leaders of the Revolution were Ulyanov Vladimir Ilyich (better known as Lenin ) and Leon Trotsky , who took power by force of arms, and established a workers ‘ state under the dictatorship of the proletariat , based on the ideals of Marxism And the elimination of private property.

However, after the death of Lenin, Joseph Stalin took control of the USSR and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union by establishing a model of reform from above and “socialism in one country” to the detriment of the theory of permanent revolution Of Trotsky.
This meant a system of political purges, and Leon Trotsky , his supporters, and other democratic Communists and anarchists, were persecuted, imprisoned and killed.

George Orwell knew about the Communist Party and its doctrines and knew what was going on in Russia. However, at that time the criticisms of Soviet communism were not popular, because the USSR was considered a bulwark against Nazism , and maintained good relations with the British government.

Animal Farm was written during World War II , was published in 1945, but became known by the public until the end of the 50 ‘s
had in his time many problems of criticism and censure, since by that time England Was an ally of the Soviet Union, and the ruthless criticism of Stalin’s government of the book did not please the English government that it did not want tensions with Russia.

Animal Farm is considered one of the most important novels of the twentieth century. It has been translated into fifteen languages and was chosen among the top 100 English – language novels by Time magazine, besides winning the Hugo retrospectively fantasy literature prize in 1996.

The play has been adapted twice. In 1954 a British animated version directed by Halas and Batchelor was realized, and in 1999 a film for television with real image, directed by Joseph Stephenson was realized.

Summary of the Farm Rebellion plot

The book tells the story of the Manor farm whose owner, Mr. Jones , is fond of drink and neglected animals.

They gather to hear the speech that considered the wisest animal farm, the pig Old Major .

Mayor tells them of his dream of freedom where all animals are equal and have the same rights and tells them to get that dream, must get rid of the oppressive yoke of humans.

In his speech, Mayor teaches an old song from his childhood, “Beasts of England” which speaks of a world in which animals are free, and not have to work for humans.
In that world, animals enjoy the fruit of their labor, and if there is abundance, it is for all, and they would no longer suffer hunger or cold.

After the speech, the pigs make a vote, where they decide that all animals are friends, and man, enemy.

One day after Mr. Jones stop feeding, the animals rebel and there ‘s a fight on the farm.
Led by two young pigs , Snowball and Napoleon , the animals win and expel the farmer Jones and its employees from the farm. However, the Old Major dies before seeing the triumph.

After the victory, the animals are organized under Old Major’s ideas, which they call “Animalism” and pigs are established as leaders.
They learn to read and write and change the sign of the farm by farm animals . They write on the wall the seven rules that established the Old Major before his death, and they consider the seven commandments of the farm:

Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
Everything that walks on four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
No animal will wear clothing.
No animal will sleep in a bed.
No animal will drink alcohol.
No animal will kill another animal.
All animals are the same.

In the beginning everything works better than before. The animals work longer because they are not slaves, they know they will enjoy the fruits of their work and have a good harvest .
However, soon the problems begin with the pigs, who have self-directed the leaders and begin to abuse their power. They keep the best of the crop and eat all the apples and milk, saying that they need them to think.

An attack then occurs to the farm by the Mr. Jones , he wants it back. The animals defend themselves and stop the attack. Boxer , strong workhorse, and Snowball receive medals for bravery in battle.

However, they soon begin fighting for power between Napoleon and Snowball .

On the one hand, Snowball wants to build a windmill for electricity there on the farm. Napoleon opposes and during the meeting organized by Snowball to explain his plan to the other animals, Napoleon , who raised the farm dogs to obey, the spear on him with intent to kill, but Snowball escapes and flees the farm.

In the following year, Napoleon becomes a real dictator, using dogs as their personal police against anyone who opposes him, and increasingly breaking the commandments that started the revolution.
He orders to build the windmill that Snowball invented, and when a storm destroys it, he makes Snowball responsible and blames him for what happened in front of all the animals, accusing him of being a traitor.
Napoleon ordered again rebuild the mill, a task in which the horse is essential Boxer and strength.

The tyranny of Napoleon increases to the point of forcing innocent people to “confess” false treason and do kill their dogs before all the farm animals. Then he and the other pigs start sleeping in beds and drinking alcohol.
The commandments begin to be modified to justify the behavior of the pigs, “No animal shall drink alcohol” it becomes “No animal shall drink alcoho excess” .

After the mill is completed, the farm is under attack by the neighboring farmer Frederick , with whom Napoleon had been trading.
The animals win the battle, but the mill is again destroyed.
Boxer offers new strength to build again the mill, but the exhausting work that provokes undergoes a collapse and eventually excessive effort made her kills.
Napoleon then decided to sell it to a factory where they manufactured glue with his cadaver. Faced with indignant protests from other animals, the pig Squealer , spokesman Napoleon tells them that Boxer was taken to a veterinary clinic where he died peacefully, and all decide to believe him.

The years pass and Animal Farm expands with purchase of Napoleon two fields to a neighboring farmer, Pilkington. However life for non-pig animals is getting tougher, as these will carry the best food, and all the amenities.

The pigs soon begin to walk on two legs, imitating humans, and wear human clothing. The ancient commandments have disappeared and been reduced to a single law:

“All animals are equal but some are more equal than others”

The novel ends with Pilkington and pigs drinking in the house Jones. Napoleon has changed the name of the farm Manor Farm and plays cards with Pilkington , both trying to make traps each other.

The rest of the animals look out the window, and are unable to distinguish pigs from humans.

Rebellion characters on the farm

The main characters of this novel are the following:

Old man

He is a wise pig who wanted a world where animals lived with dignity. The rebellion of the animals is based on his ideas, but he dies before seeing his triumph.
The figure of Mayor, the leader respected by all, has often been associated with Lenin , with clear references in the novel as the story of the unearthing of skull Mayor for public exposure, in clear reference to mummification and exhibition of Lenin .
His affable and looking for a more just world character has also to be related to Karl Marx , the ideologist of communism, whose ideas of equality and defense of the proletariat were gradually degenerating under the rule of Stalin.


It is the other aspiring leader of the farm, bright, brave and full of projects is often compared him with Leon Trotsky , who led the Red Army in the USSR, like Snowball leads the animals against farmer Jones .
Similarly to the flight of Snowball dogs that Napoleon sent after him, Trotsky suffered persecution by the police of Stalin , accused of treason, finally being murdered in exile.


He is one of the pigs, of strong personality and that tends to get his way.
Along with Snowball leads the rebellion against Jones . After the triumph of the revolution, he begins to control all aspects of the farm until he becomes a ruthless tyrant.
George Orwell gives, including the name, all the characteristics of totalitarian dictators, although its resemblance to the Russian dictator Stalin is the clearest.
Like him, the lack of brilliance of Napoleon not prevent him from being a great conspirator and have a strong and cruel character, which eventually lead him to power. From there, as you would Stalin , undertakes a series of planning measures (like the five – year plans in Russia) of the farm economy, personified especially in the construction of a mill (idea of Snowball that Napoleon first rejected and then it appropriates), and persecutes and kills it considers a danger to his government, as in the notorious purges during the rule of Stalin .


One of the pigs that becomes the lieutenant and spokesman of Napoleon.
Through the book shows his ability to manipulate other animals with his convincing rhetoric.
It represents the propaganda mechanisms used by the government of Stalin, who, like Napoleon, presented himself as an idealist always seeking the good of the people.


A working horse, strong and dedicated, he serves with all his being to the revolution of animals, only to be sold by Napoleon to a factory of glue after dying of pure exhaustion working to rebuild the mill.

Boxer would represent the proletariat of Russia, the workers who were supposed to be the soul of the revolution and who for George Orwell would have been deceived and betrayed by the leaders of the communist party.


It is the mare that was responsible for pulling Mr. Jones’s car. Pretentious and superficial, prefers ties and sugar before revolutionary ideas, and finally leaves the farm with the promise of a more pleasant life.

It represents the middle class of Russia, who accepted the excesses of the government in order to maintain a privileged position.


She is a shooting mare, friend of Boxer and that tries to help to him when it falls surrendered of exhaustion.


He’s an ass, friend of Boxer. Cynical and pessimistic, he does not believe in the Revolution.
It represents the intellectuals. It is always caustic and very negative regarding the intentions of the pigs, but in the end it does not oppose them and consents to their excesses.

Paula Hawkins’ novel & Dogs

At first there are three dogs on the farm, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher.
Napoleon stays with his puppies, and breeds them and trains them to be their guard dogs.
Napoleon dogs represent the KGB , the secret police of Stalin , who used to hunt down and kill the opposition.

Moses the Raven

It was Mr. Jones’s pet, and tells stories to the animals about a paradisiacal land called “Monte azucar”, to which animals go when they die, and where there is no suffering.
It represents religion and its promises of a better world in the afterlife.

Sheep and chickens

They are the majority of the farm and represent the Russian peasantry, 85% of the population. They are characterized by being stupid and totally uncritical about the measurements of pigs. Although the Russian peasantry can not be regarded as stupid, it is true that most of them were an illiterate and de-ideologized population.

Mr. Jones

The owner of the farm Manor, drinker and neglected with the farm, is expelled of the same by his own animals.
Represent the Czar Nicholas II of Russia , which, just as the farmer Jones had complete mastery over the farm, was considered the only leader of Russia. In the Revolution of 1917 the people revolted against him, blaming him for the hunger and misery they suffered and for the destruction caused by World War I.

Frederick and Pilkington

They are the other farmers, and represent Adolf Hitler and Winston Churchill , respectively. As farmers respect to farm animals for their prosperity and strength, but deep down they hate the world around the USSR, admired its economic progress and feared military power, although most of Europe and USA Were opposed to communism.

Commentary on Rebellion on the Farm

Animal Farm belongs to the literary genre of the narrative , and is usually included in the subgenus of fable or allegory, but is also considered a political satire .

A fable level of the work has a strong educational character , and warning about the dangers of abuse of power. At the level of satire, it is an obvious criticism of the Russian Revolution and its protagonists.

It consists of 10 chapters, and can be divided into two parts: the first bases of the revolution of the animals are narrated, since the introduction of the libertarian ideology by Mayor until the conquest of the farm.
In the second part the deterioration of the egalitarian ideas of the beginning is shown, and how farm animals slowly returns to its initial state of tyranny under the yoke of the pigs, and the complete betrayal of the revolution these.

George Orwell uses the resource to use animals as protagonists of history, traditional mechanism of fables to put distance between actual events and satirized, and so make the most of the possibilities humorous characters (tyrants are pigs, ignorant workers are represented with a donkey, etc.)

a constant throughout the work is the use of satirical humor , being cruel and ruthless in most of the characterizations, and most of the characters are ridiculous, stupid and / or evil, A frequent feature of the satire characters.

In addition, the work is a clear analysis of the corruption that breeds power, expressed in a simple and direct language, getting the message transcends the particular case of the Soviet regime and be understood by all readers, but does not know the history of the USSR .

Farm School and Welding Projects

Mechanical seat

Using metal rails and heavy sweaters, create a post of mechanic with four wheels that allows you to move around the school store, keep tools at hand. Craft a lower platform approximately twice the width of the seat surface. Make a second platform, large enough for a grown man to sit comfortably, and attach it to the center of the base. The end result allows the user to sit in the seat to a comfortable height and tool store on the platform below.

Bird Bath

Sculpting a project welding metal bird bath is a great school that you can give as a gift or entered local competitions. Weld a stack of one meter a secure base before connecting a round metal disc on top of the pole. This is the area where water is stored for birds, so it must have a type of a recess to hold water. Complete bird bath with a creative twist with the addition of a sculpture of decorative metal sheets or rolls in the center of the tank.

Penne with animals

Personalized pens welding is a convenient option for farmers who need a safe place to keep small animals such as goats and sheep instead. Use an inch cutting metal tubes large enough for the pen size desired lengths. Weld three sides of the panels together and filling the openings with wire fencing panels horses. Create the doors in the same way to the pens with fixed hinges for easy access.

Decorative Door Handle barn

Add a little style ‘their barn doors with decorative metal handle. Using a square centimeter of metallic material, applying high heat and carefully twisting metal decoratively but utilitarian. Welding metal balls 1 inch from the top and bottom of the handle and use a means of short pieces of centimeters actions to ensure handle square metal plates used to hold the door handle. The size and shape of the handle can be changed to suit most any farm gate.

More information about welding, please visit safenclean.com.

Disinfection and effective cleaning in pig farms

Cleaning and disinfection are part of biosecurity programs implemented in swine facilities in order to prevent the entry, reverse the spread and minimize the risk that may pose a pathogen, both for animals and for farm staff.

Pig farms are permanently under the threat of entry and spread of pathogens. The explosion of an outbreak of an infectious disease, especially if it is a notifiable disease official statement, in addition to the commitment to its viability, is a source of risk for other animal species and even humans if the responsible agent is zoonotic.

Bacteria and fungi can survive, and some multiply on wet surfaces, especially if there is organic matter.While most bacteria are labile and fragile exceptions such as mycobacteria and sporulated bacilli resisting hostile conditions. Similarly, the behavior of pathogenic microorganisms against chemical compounds is variable, depending on the type of differences cell wall and spore forming ability. In any case, as with antibiotics, they have also been described resistances. Viruses, which are unique in their dependence on living cells, some are resistant to the environment and can survive long periods, as with parvovirus.

Until a few years ago, the practices we know today under the name comprehensive biosafety were not sufficiently valued. The professionalization of the production sectors and scientific studies demonstrating its utility sectors have made themselves and administrations include national programs, often mandatory for the control and eradication of many infectious diseases. Biosecurity includes a set of measures that are intended to prevent the entry of pathogens on a farm and, as the case may slow or prevent its spread in her and other neighbors, as well as minimize the risk (if any) for employees. The cleaning and disinfection practices are main part of the programs and every day more important.

Cleaning as a preliminary step

Cleaning and disinfection are inseparable phases of hygiene in pig farms. On farms are unusual circumstances (walls, floors and ceilings rough surface, abundance of organic matter, low temperatures, etc.) which represent limiting factors for the action of disinfectants, requiring minimize its negative effect to achieve favorable results. For this reason, pre-cleaning disinfection is critical in it.

As WHO (1994) noted, they can be considered two general systems for cleaning: dry and wet. In any case, the process begins by cleaning the fans (where they exist) and air intakes. After bedding and manure floor or cages are removed, without neglecting the corners, ribbons manure collection and final wells.equipment (cages, feeding, watering, etc.), collects the accumulated matter and all material outside the barn is transported dismantled. On the outside, over an area of concrete proceeds to washing with high pressure washing vancouver wa water, followed by drying and disinfection. Inside, brush, sweeps and vacuums to remove dust and dirt from ceilings, electrical installation, beams, cornices, walls, cages, parts of fans, air intakes and corridors, all in up-down and back -ahead. Fouling scratch by hand with a wire brush.

In order to save costs (labor and time), on farms cleaning with high pressure water cleaning in two phases often used, and soaked. Soaking is wetted with water (1L / m2, 1-2 h). Sometimes liquid detergents are added. In cleaning itself cleaners are used at pressures of 10-100 bar, at a distance not less than 40 cm from the surface. It is more effective than cold hot water. On wood or concrete surfaces, poor conductors, the optimum temperature is 40 ° C, while higher temperatures metal surfaces can be used, with best results if the application time on the surface is sufficiently long. The recommended flow is 600-800 l / h if cold water can reach 1,100. The use of pressurized water can generate secondary aerosols that cause hazardous situations if there has been an outbreak, particularly if zoonotic agents are involved, so precautions should be taken.

After cleaning, leave the plants dry. If devices are provided for this, heating and ventilation to facilitate water evaporation alternate. Drying reduces pollution, at least one log cycle, especially gram-negative microorganisms.

Depending on the type of material, cleaning can reduce 3 log or more of the total bacteria count, as they reduce the effective disinfectant, which means that under normal conditions, per cm2 of farms, can stay around 103 ufc, usually sporulated agents.

Disinfection and disinfectants

Disinfection process is capable of removing pathogenic microorganisms by chemical or physical agents.Usually sporulated forms survival allowed. A disinfectant is a biocide (Directive 98/8 / EC and RD 1054/2002). Disinfectants for veterinary hygiene correspond to the type of product (TP-3) within the main group 1. They are used in areas where they are housed, they kept or transported animals, to disinfect teats in cows, footwear and hatcheries. The TP-3 covering the use of disinfectants to control animal pathogens to prevent infectious diseases, to increase (indirectly) production and improve production and quality of products of animal origin.

The choice of disinfectant is important. In general, in the case of outbreaks of notifiable diseases, often pure substances of activity tested against the causative pathogen used, while non-specific preventive disinfection using commercial formulations of broad spectrum include various compounds or combinations and their effectiveness depends on the concentration of use. All recommendations should be based on laboratory data.

Disinfectants used in animal farms can be grouped into:

  • Quaternary ammonium derivatives.
  • Phenols.
  • halogen-releasing compounds.
  • Halogenated phenols.
  • Aldehydes.
  • Biguanides and polymeric biguanides.
  • Acids and alkalis.
  • oxidizing agents.


An ideal disinfectant should be: soluble in water, broad spectrum, active in the presence of organic, stable material, non-toxic, fast acting, with residual, penetrating, compatible with all materials action, which does not affect the environment, available and good value for cost-risk-benefit.

In general, for disinfecting a surface in a warehouse, it takes at least 0.4 l / m2 and equipment is recommended to add 30% more. The effectiveness of disinfection depends on the disinfectant and microorganism to which the practice is addressed, as well as other characteristics that influence both as resistance and survival of the agent, the ability to multiply, the concentration of disinfectant contact duration, ambient temperature, etc. The optimum temperature for liquids used in the cleaning and disinfecting farms is 40 ° C and for the surfaces of 20 ° C. Colder requires higher concentrations; below 10 ° C, the disinfection effect is incomplete. Humidity and air velocity negatively affect most surface disinfectants.

Disinfection should be performed in the same order as wet cleaning, that is, from top to bottom and back to front of the building. It is advisable to know the nature of the surface of the floor, ceiling and walls, to correctly apply disinfectants. The contact time with the surface can vary depending on the type of disinfectant used. Should follow the manufacturer’s recommendations contained in the label.

For application, various methods can be used, including the use of:

  • Pressurized aerosols (35 to 70 kg / cm2): is the most effective, since the disinfectant enters pores or cracks in the structure, including wood.
  • Thermonebulization: it produces a fine mist with high diffusion capacity.
  • Fumigation: not recommended and in some countries is prohibited. With formaldehyde and methyl bromide gas. Dangerous for workers and environmentally unsafe.
  • Controlled fire is used for soil and is a relatively new method; it may be interesting if there is adequate equipment.
  • Electrostatic: sprayed with charged particles that stick to the surface to be disinfected particles; You can reach areas inaccessible by other methods
  • Foams: Contact is maintained for longer times with liquids
  • Heat rising temperature in an empty warehouse, before cleaning and disinfection, increases efficiency.The bird flu virus, for example, was inactivated after 15 minutes at 40 ° C in manure.

In any case, after the exposure time, allowed to dry installation, disinfectant residues are removed and food and water bowls ready before guards are removed. It is recommended to verify the effectiveness with the help of the laboratory. Before repopulate, allowed to “rest” the barn about a week with ventilation.

Transport vehicles

Transport vehicles are difficult to disinfect, especially in cold weather. disinfection in a separate shed and a minimum temperature of 10 ° C is recommended. Should be cleaned with hot water and excess liquid must be removed by a vacuum cleaner. The concentration of the disinfectant must rise at least three times.The effect is enhanced if carried out a preliminary disinfection before cleaning. The process takes place in four phases:

  • Dry cleaning on all visible organic matter is removed.
  • Clean and hygienic with pressurized hot water and detergent, rinse, rinse and dry.
  • Disinfection of the cab and the trailer: in which it is recommended to combine in a single phase cleaning and disinfection, a licensed low pressure hand sprayer or a disinfectant.
  • Disinfection trailer and cab interior.

Usually we proceed to disinfection of facilities and equipment when the warehouse is emptied, cleaned and washed, as with the other materials. Such a situation occurs, optimally, in the course of production systems all in-all out during the resting phase or as a result of bound by an outbreak of an infectious disease depopulation. Optionally, it may be convenient to carry out a plan of environmental disinfection on the warehouse occupied by livestock, in which case it will have a significant impact on the pre-disinfection process, the chosen disinfectant and the method of application. In such circumstances it is impossible to complete cleaning and disinfection before the disinfectant used must be non-toxic and possess biocidal effect when applied as a mist or spray. chemicals that work well in these conditions include for example phenylphenols, hexylresorcinol, resorcinol, cloroxifenol, propylene glycol and trimethylene.

In the case of solid waste (manure) and liquids, particularly when there have been outbreaks of infectious diseases, disinfection task is more complicated. For liquid (slurry) you are required to have equipment that enables efficient distribution and mixing of disinfectant, which must be kept at least one hour. Table 2 lists some recommendations of disinfectants and concentrations for different pathogens. Once disinfected, the slurry can be spread on arable land at a rate of 30 m3 / ha. The solid manure can be treated with burnt lime to get hot enough to sanitize, given that modern operating systems that do not use straw or it is scarce, not efficient thermophilic microorganisms selected for the self-heating.

The Top 10 most dangerous foods for dogs

After work and dinner, couples can enjoy relaxing on the couch, watch a movie in xmovies8 and have dessert. Dogs, eager to participate, they can look expectantly, waiting for an invitation to embrace his family and share dessert.Unfortunately, some foods that are harmless to humans are toxic to dogs.

Chocolate . Chocolate contains the chemical theobromide, which can cause serious problems if ingested, dogs. Chocolate consumption can damage the central nervous system of a dog, heart, lungs and kidneys. Chocolate, cocoa powder and black chocolate are more toxic than milk chocolate, but all varieties are dangerous.Symptoms of poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, hyperactivity, overheating, convulsions, tremors, irregular heartbeat and internal bleeding. Within 12 to 36 hours, dogs can experience sensory sensitivity, stiffness, hallucinations, heart attack, coma and death.

Grapes and raisins . A single serving of raisins or grapes can cause serious illness or death in some dogs. Because the toxin accumulates internally, even a dog that has no negative reaction to these fruits can become extremely ill with time. The first symptoms of poisoning with raisins and grapes include vomiting and diarrhea, followed by lethargy, dehydration, lack of appetite, decreased urine and kidney failure, which can result in chronic renal disease or death.

Onions and garlic . Onion, garlic, onions and shallots contain disulfide, a compound which can damage the red blood cells of dogs. When dogs eat raw onions or garlic, they are at risk of developing hemolytic anemia, which occurs when red blood cells are destroyed and can not be replaced. Eating ways onion powder or garlic in soups or sauces is also toxic. The signs of internal damage, such as weakness, orange urine, tiredness or unjustified resistance movement may not appear for a few days. If you notice these symptoms, immediately take your dog to a veterinarian or emergency clinic, where a blood transfusion may be necessary.

Baking dough . The raw bakery dough contains yeast, which can be dangerous for any dog that ingests. The moist heat of the stomach provides a perfect environment for the yeast in the raw dough rise, which can cause severe discomfort and lead to rupture of the stomach or intestines of the dog. The expansion of the stomach can press against the dog diaphragm, making breathing difficult. If your dog has eaten bread dough has to be examined by a veterinarian immediately.

Nuts . Nuts are unhealthy for dogs, for its high content of phosphorus can lead to bladder stones. Walnuts are poisonous to dogs, like macadamia nuts. Eating even a few macadamia nuts can be harmful, leading to vomiting, muscle pain, joint swelling and general weakness. Dogs that have eaten macadamias may experience hypothermia, dizziness, coordination problems, tremors and high fever. Consult your veterinarian immediately if your dog shows any of these symptoms.

Fatty foods . When dogs like meat and other foods high in fat, but the cooked and raw meat leftovers of meat and fat from meats cut it can cause pancreatitis.Unfortunately, some people feed dogs with leftovers, and dogs sometimes treat themselves to steal food. Pancreatitis in dogs often followed by the consumption of a meal or snack greasy occurs. Your dog may become very sick quickly, and if younotice symptoms such as sudden vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain, should be examined by a veterinarian and receive intensive fluid and antibiotic therapy.

Nutmeg . Nutmeg used in cooking or sprinkled on eggnog can be very toxic to dogs, and nutmeg oil can cause damage to the central nervous system. The toxicity of nutmeg can cause abdominal pain, vomiting, muscle spasms, irregular heartbeat, dizziness, tremors, extreme drowsiness, personality changes, seizures and hallucinations. Your dog should be examined by a veterinarian immediately because if treated too late or not treated, nutmeg poisoning can be fatal.

Xylitol . Xylitol is a sweetener used in chewing gum, sugarless candies, and as asweetener added to baked sugarless products. Products containing xylitol should never be given to, or be within reach of dogs. Symptoms of xylitol poisoning include vomiting, lethargy, loss of coordination, erratic behavior, disorientation and seizures.Eating candy, gum or baked goods made with xylitol can cause a severe drop in blood sugar levels, resulting in liver failure. If you suspect your dog has ingested xylitol, it should be taken to a veterinarian or an emergency clinic immediately.

Aguacate . La Fura avocado, leaves, seeds and bark can be toxic to dogs and can cause diarrhea and vomiting. The danger comes from persin, oil soluble toxin found in the avocado fruit and skin. Another danger for dogs is the large avocado seed, which, if ingested, can block the digestive tract and require emergency surgery.

Leather candy . Feed your dog rawhide treats can cause a number of problems.Some rawhide products have tested positive for toxic chemical or bacterial contamination of Salmonella and E. coli substances. If you give your dog rawhide, I them on watch while you are chewing, because it softens and becomes enlarged by the saliva of dog. He is to be removed before being swallowed, as it continues to expand in the stomach or intestines, causing a blockage that may require emergency surgery. Contact your veterinarian immediately if your dog symptoms include nausea, repetitive swallowing, vomiting, diarrhea, signs of pain, lack of energy, loss of appetite or fever.

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